Chapter 2: Phonemic Awareness

Becoming aware of the sounds of language

Phonemic awareness
  • think analytically about sounds and words, separate words into sounds, blend sounds into words
  • awareness of words, rhymes, syllables and sounds; a subset of using phonics to sound out new words
  • awareness of words, rhymes, sounds in a predictable sequence
  • good awareness makes for better readers, spellers and word learners
  • sequential learning process--first children can break apart sentences, then sentences into syllables, etc
  • important for reading and spelling
Phonics refers to letters' sounds in relation to one another, reciprocal relationship with phonemic awareness
  • for some, knowing that the spoken word 'top' begins with the sound 't' will help recognize this sound-letter
  • others, knowing the sound/letter 't' will help them recognize words like 'top'
Phonome: smallest unit of sound--s, r, t, i, etc...
Phonological awareness is a larger concept
  • awareness that a sentence is made of words, words of syllables, some rhyme, words are made of sounds, blending sounds creates meaningful words
Rhyme awareness
  • identify rhyming words
  • think of rhyming words
  • separating words into beginning sounds and rhyming sounds
Phonemic awareness demonstrated by:
  • separating the beginning sounds from the word (ch-illy)
  • isolating sounds
  • manipulating sounds
  • blending sounds
Taught by:
  • teach awareness of beginning, middle and end sounds
  • letter names and sounds together
  • one or two skills at a time
  • early teaching, in kindergarten
  • teach in small groups
  • instruction needs catered to the child
  • show when reading and writing new words
  • start with short, two-sound words

Chapter 3: Early Word Identification

  • Prealphabetic learners:
    • Environmental cues: using familiar words in context, such as stop sign, M in McDonalds
    • Picture cues: using a picture to make an assumption about a word
    • Configuration: bed = shape of a bed
  • Partial alphabetic
    • one letter name: they know the names of one or two letters
    • two letter sound
    • letter-sound connection
    • misidentification: using known letters to assume word (they might think other "m" words are "mother")

Chapter 4: Analogy-based Phonics

  • End of kindergarten through second grade
  • Onset & rime = /h/ + /at/
  • Word families: words with the same rime, pronounced the same, ex. hat, cat, mat, etc.
  • Substitute new onsets within word families to create new words (but teaching word families because not all similar letter combinations have same sound, /kn/ + /ow/ is not same as /n/ + /ow/

Chapter 5: Letter-sound Phonics

  • Letter sound patterns: letters that represent sounds in words, letter combinations
  • Teach letter sound based phonics in a direct way and early on
  • Patterns:
    • single consonants
    • VC short vowels, ex. 'at'
    • consonant digraph, creates a unique sound, ex. ch, sh, th
    • consonant cluster (or blend), blended sounds, ex. cl, str
    • VC+e, long vowel, ex. time
    • rules about C and G with vowels

Chapter 6: Structural Analysis

  • Teaching K - 6, increasing in complexity
  • Analyzing structure of words into large, multi-letter chunks, including compound words
  • When a child reads, they might want to use the following techniques:
    • Split it up into letter chunks, or syllables, or into words, prefixes and suffixes they already know
    • Compound words
    • Contractions
    • Prefixes, suffixes
    • Syllable patterns (as seen in Ch. 5)
    • Greek and Latin roots, such as bio (life), logy (word)
    • Base words/morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning, ex. shady = shade + y (meaning having that quality)